Name

gpsd_json — gpsd request/response protol

OVERVIEW

gpsd is a service daemon that can be used to monitor GPSes, DGPS receivers, Marine AIS broadcasts, and various other location-related and kinematic sensors.

Clients may communicate with gpsd via textual requests and responses over a socket. It is a bad idea for applications to speak the protocol directly: rather, they should use the libgps client library (for C; bindings also exist for other languages) and take appropriate care to conditionalize their code on the major and minor protocol version symbols.

The GPSD protocol is built on top of JSON, JavaScript Object Notation. GPSD's use of JSON is restricted in some ways that make parsing it in fixed-extent languages (such as C) easier.

A request line is introduced by "?" and may include multiple commands. Commands begin with a command identifier, followed either by a terminating ';' or by an equal sign "=" and a JSON object treated as an argument. Any ';' or newline indication (either LF or CR-LF) after the end of a command is ignored. All request lines must be composed of US-ASCII characters and may be no more than 80 characters in length, exclusive of the trailing newline.

Responses are JSON objects all of which have a "class" attribute the value of which is either the name of the invoking command. There are reports (including but not limited to as "TPV", "SKY", "DEVICE", and "ERROR") which are not direct responses to commands.

The order of JSON attributes within a response object is never significant, and you may specify attributes in commands in any order. Responses never contain the special JSON value null; instead, attributes with empty or undefined values are omitted. The length limit for responses and reports is 1536 characters, including trailing newline; longer responses will be truncated, so client code must be prepared for the possibility of invalid JSON fragments.

In JSON reports, if an attribute is present only if the parent attribute is present or has a particular range, then the parent attribute is emitted first.

There is one constraint on the order in which attributes will be omitted. If an optional attribute is present only when a parent attribute has a specified value or range of values, the parent attribute will be emitted first to make parsing easier.

The next subsection section documents the core GPSD protocol. Extensions are documented in the following subsections. The extensions may not be supported in your gpsd instance if it has been compiled with a restricted feature set.

CORE SOCKET PROTOCOL

Here are the core-protocol responses:

TPV

A TPV object is a time-position-velocity report. The "class" and "mode" fields will reliably be present. The "mode" field will be emitted before optional fields that may be absent when there is no fix. Error estimates will be emitted after the fix components they're associated with. Others may be reported or not depending on the fix quality.

Table 1. TPV object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "TPV"
deviceNostringName of originating device.
modeYesnumericNMEA mode: %d, 0=no mode value yet seen, 1=no fix, 2=2D, 3=3D.
timeNostringTime/date stamp in ISO8601 format, UTC. May have a fractional part of up to .001sec precision. May be absent if mode is not 2 or 3.
eptNonumericEstimated timestamp error (%f, seconds, 95% confidence). Present if time is present.
latNonumericLatitude in degrees: +/- signifies North/South. Present when mode is 2 or 3.
lonNonumericLongitude in degrees: +/- signifies East/West. Present when mode is 2 or 3.
altNonumericAltitude in meters. Present if mode is 3.
epxNonumericLongitude error estimate in meters, 95% confidence. Present if mode is 2 or 3 and DOPs can be calculated from the satellite view.
epyNonumericLatitude error estimate in meters, 95% confidence. Present if mode is 2 or 3 and DOPs can be calculated from the satellite view.
epvNonumericEstimated vertical error in meters, 95% confidence. Present if mode is 3 and DOPs can be calculated from the satellite view.
trackNonumericCourse over ground, degrees from true north.
speedNonumericSpeed over ground, meters per second.
climbNonumericClimb (positive) or sink (negative) rate, meters per second.
epdNonumericDirection error estimate in degrees, 95% confidence.
epsNonumericSpeed error estinmate in meters/sec, 95% confidence.
epcNonumericClimb/sink error estimate in meters/sec, 95% confidence.

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert validity bits in the top-level set member for each field actually received; see gps.h for bitmask names and values.

Here's an example:

{"class":"TPV","device":"/dev/pts/1",
    "time":"2005-06-08T10:34:48.283Z","ept":0.005,
    "lat":46.498293369,"lon":7.567411672,"alt":1343.127,
    "eph":36.000,"epv":32.321,
    "track":10.3788,"speed":0.091,"climb":-0.085,"mode":3}
SKY

A SKY object reports a sky view of the GPS satellite positions. If there is no GPS device available, or no skyview has been reported yet, only the "class" field will reliably be present.

Table 2. SKY object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "SKY"
deviceNostringName of originating device
timeNonumericTime/date stamp in ISO8601 format, UTC. May have a fractional part of up to .001sec precision.
xdopNonumericLongitudinal dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
ydopNonumericLatitudinal dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
vdopNonumericAltitude dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
tdopNonumericTime dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
hdopNonumericHorizontal dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get a circular error estimate.
pdopNonumericSpherical dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
gdopNonumericHyperspherical dilution of precision, a dimensionless factor which should be multiplied by a base UERE to get an error estimate.
satellitesYeslistList of satellite objects in skyview

Many devices compute dilution of precision factors but do not include them in their reports. Many that do report DOPs report only HDOP, two-dimensional circular error. gpsd always passes through whatever the device actually reports, then attempts to fill in other DOPs by calculating the appropriate determinants in a covariance matrix based on the satellite view. DOPs may be missing if some of these determinants are singular. It can even happen that the device reports an error estimate in meters when the corresponding DOP is unavailable; some devices use more sophisticated error modeling than the covariance calculation.

The satellite list objects have the following elements:

Table 3. Satellite object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
PRNYesnumericPRN ID of the satellite. 1-63 are GNSS satellites, 64-96 are GLONASS satellites, 100-164 are SBAS satellites
azYesnumericAzimuth, degrees from true north.
elYesnumericElevation in degrees.
ssYesnumericSignal strength in dB.
usedYesbooleanUsed in current solution? (SBAS/WAAS/EGNOS satellites may be flagged used if the solution has corrections from them, but not all drivers make this information available.)

Note that satellite objects do not have a "class" field, as they are never shipped outside of a SKY object.

When the C client library parses a SKY response, it will assert the SATELLITE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class":"SKY","device":"/dev/pts/1",
    "time":"2005-07-08T11:28:07.114Z",
    "xdop":1.55,"hdop":1.24,"pdop":1.99,
    "satellites":[
        {"PRN":23,"el":6,"az":84,"ss":0,"used":false},
        {"PRN":28,"el":7,"az":160,"ss":0,"used":false},
        {"PRN":8,"el":66,"az":189,"ss":44,"used":true},
        {"PRN":29,"el":13,"az":273,"ss":0,"used":false},
        {"PRN":10,"el":51,"az":304,"ss":29,"used":true},
        {"PRN":4,"el":15,"az":199,"ss":36,"used":true},
        {"PRN":2,"el":34,"az":241,"ss":43,"used":true},
        {"PRN":27,"el":71,"az":76,"ss":43,"used":true}]}
GST

A GST object is a pseudorange noise report.

Table 4. GST object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "GST"
deviceNostringName of originating device
timeNonumericSeconds since the Unix epoch, UTC. May have a fractional part of up to .001sec precision.
rmsNonumericValue of the standard deviation of the range inputs to the navigation process (range inputs include pseudoranges and DGPS corrections).
majorNonumericStandard deviation of semi-major axis of error ellipse, in meters.
minorNonumericStandard deviation of semi-minor axis of error ellipse, in meters.
orientNonumericOrientation of semi-major axis of error ellipse, in degrees from true north.
latNonumericStandard deviation of latitude error, in meters.
lonNonumericStandard deviation of longitude error, in meters.
altNonumericStandard deviation of altitude error, in meters.

Here's an example:

{"class":"GST","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
        "time":"2010-12-07T10:23:07.096Z","rms":2.440,
        "major":1.660,"minor":1.120,"orient":68.989,
        "lat":1.600,"lon":1.200,"alt":2.520}
ATT

An ATT object is a vehicle-attitude report. It is returned by digital-compass and gyroscope sensors; depending on device, it may include: heading, pitch, roll, yaw, gyroscope, and magnetic-field readings. Because such sensors are often bundled as part of marine-navigation systems, the ATT response may also include water depth.

The "class" and "mode" fields will reliably be present. Others may be reported or not depending on the specific device type.

Table 5. ATT object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "ATT"
deviceYesstringName of originating device
timeYesnumericSeconds since the Unix epoch, UTC. May have a fractional part of up to .001sec precision.
headingNonumericHeading, degrees from true north.
mag_stNostringMagnetometer status.
pitchNonumericPitch in degrees.
pitch_stNostringPitch sensor status.
yawNonumericYaw in degrees
yaw_stNostringYaw sensor status.
rollNonumericRoll in degrees.
roll_stNostringRoll sensor status.
dipNonumericLocal magnetic inclination, degrees, positive when the magnetic field points downward (into the Earth).
mag_lenNonumericScalar magnetic field strength.
mag_xNonumericX component of magnetic field strength.
mag_yNonumericY component of magnetic field strength.
mag_zNonumericZ component of magnetic field strength.
acc_lenNonumericScalar acceleration.
acc_xNonumericX component of acceleration.
acc_yNonumericY component of acceleration.
acc_zNonumericZ component of acceleration.
gyro_xNonumericX component of acceleration.
gyro_yNonumericY component of acceleration.
depthNonumericWater depth in meters.
temperatureNonumericTemperature at sensor, degrees centigrade.

The heading, pitch, and roll status codes (if present) vary by device. For the TNT Revolution digital compasses, they are coded as follows:

Table 6. Device flags

CodeDescription
Cmagnetometer calibration alarm
Llow alarm
Mlow warning
Nnormal
Ohigh warning
Phigh alarm
Vmagnetometer voltage level alarm

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert ATT_IS.

Here's an example:

{"class":"ATT","time":1270938096.843,
    "heading":14223.00,"mag_st":"N",
    "pitch":169.00,"pitch_st":"N", "roll":-43.00,"roll_st":"N",
    "dip":13641.000,"mag_x":2454.000}

And here are the commands:

?VERSION;

Returns an object with the following attributes:

Table 7. VERSION object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "VERSION"
releaseYesstringPublic release level
revYesstringInternal revision-control level.
proto_majorYesnumericAPI major revision level.
proto_minorYesnumericAPI minor revision level.
remoteNostringURL of the remote daemon reporting this version. If empty, this is the version of the local daemon.

The daemon ships a VERSION response to each client when the client first connects to it.

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the VERSION_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class":"VERSION","version":"2.40dev",
    "rev":"06f62e14eae9886cde907dae61c124c53eb1101f",
    "proto_major":3,"proto_minor":1
}
?DEVICES;

Returns a device list object with the following elements:

Table 8. DEVICES object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "DEVICES"
devicesYeslistList of device descriptions
remoteNostringURL of the remote daemon reporting the device set. If empty, this is a DEVICES response from the local daemon.

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the DEVICELIST_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class"="DEVICES","devices":[
    {"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts/1","flags":1,"driver":"SiRF binary"},
    {"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts/3","flags":4,"driver":"AIVDM"}]}

The daemon occasionally ships a bare DEVICE object to the client (that is, one not inside a DEVICES wrapper). The data content of these objects will be described later as a response to the ?DEVICE command.

?WATCH;

This command sets watcher mode. It also sets or elicits a report of per-subscriber policy and the raw bit. An argument WATCH object changes the subscriber's policy. The response describes the subscriber's policy. The response will also include a DEVICES object.

A WATCH object has the following elements:

Table 9. WATCH object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "WATCH"
enableNobooleanEnable (true) or disable (false) watcher mode. Default is true.
jsonNobooleanEnable (true) or disable (false) dumping of JSON reports. Default is false.
nmeaNobooleanEnable (true) or disable (false) dumping of binary packets as pseudo-NMEA. Default is false.
rawNointegerControls 'raw' mode. When this attribute is set to 1 for a channel, gpsd reports the unprocessed NMEA or AIVDM data stream from whatever device is attached. Binary GPS packets are hex-dumped. RTCM2 and RTCM3 packets are not dumped in raw mode. When this attribute is set to 2 for a channel that processes binary data, gpsd reports the received data verbatim without hex-dumping.
scaledNobooleanIf true, apply scaling divisors to output before dumping; default is false.
split24NobooleanIf true, aggregate AIS type24 sentence parts. If false, report each part as a separate JSON object, leaving the client to match MMSIs and aggregate. Default is false. Applies only to AIS reports.
deviceNostringIf present, enable watching only of the specified device rather than all devices. Useful with raw and NMEA modes in which device responses aren't tagged. Has no effect when used with enable:false.
remoteNostringURL of the remote daemon reporting the watch set. If empty, this is a WATCH response from the local daemon.

There is an additional boolean "timing" attribute which is undocumented because that portion of the interface is considered unstable and for developer use only.

In watcher mode, GPS reports are dumped as TPV and SKY responses. AIS, Subframe and RTCM reporting is described in the next section.

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the POLICY_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class":"WATCH", "raw":1,"scaled":true}
?POLL;

The POLL command requests data from the last-seen fixes on all active GPS devices. Devices must previously have been activated by ?WATCH to be pollable.

Polling can lead to possibly surprising results when it is used on a device such as an NMEA GPS for which a complete fix has to be accumulated from several sentences. If you poll while those sentences are being emitted, the response will contain the last complete fix data and may be as much as one cycle time (typically 1 second) stale.

The POLL response will contain a timestamped list of TPV objects describing cached data, and a timestamped list of SKY objects describing satellite configuration. If a device has not seen fixes, it will be reported with a mode field of zero.

Table 10. POLL object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "POLL"
timeYesNumericTimestamp in ISO 8601 format. May have a fractional part of up to .001sec precision.
activeYesNumericCount of active devices.
fixesYesJSON arrayComma-separated list of TPV objects.
skyviewsYesJSON arrayComma-separated list of SKY objects.

Here's an example of a POLL response:

{"class":"POLL","time":"2010-06-04T10:31:00.289Z","active":1,
    "tpv":[{"class":"TPV","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
            "time":"2010-09-08T13:33:06.095Z",
	    "ept":0.005,"lat":40.035093060,
            "lon":-75.519748733,"track":99.4319,"speed":0.123,"mode":2}],
    "sky":[{"class":"SKY","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
            "time":1270517264.240,"hdop":9.20,
            "satellites":[{"PRN":16,"el":55,"az":42,"ss":36,"used":true},
                          {"PRN":19,"el":25,"az":177,"ss":0,"used":false},
                          {"PRN":7,"el":13,"az":295,"ss":0,"used":false},
                          {"PRN":6,"el":56,"az":135,"ss":32,"used":true},
                          {"PRN":13,"el":47,"az":304,"ss":0,"used":false},
                          {"PRN":23,"el":66,"az":259,"ss":0,"used":false},
                          {"PRN":20,"el":7,"az":226,"ss":0,"used":false},
                          {"PRN":3,"el":52,"az":163,"ss":32,"used":true},
                          {"PRN":31,"el":16,"az":102,"ss":0,"used":false}
]}]}

Note

Client software should not assume the field inventory of the POLL response is fixed for all time. As gpsd collects and caches more data from more sensor types, those data are likely to find their way into this response.

PPS

This message is emitted each time the daemon sees a PPS (Pulse Per Second) strobe from a device.

A PPS object has the following elements:

Table 11. PPS object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "PPS"
deviceYesstringName of originating device
real_secYesnumericseconds from the realtime clock
real_nsecYesnumericnanoseconds from the realtime clock
clock_secYesnumericseconds from the system clock
clock_nsecYesnumericnanoseconds from the system clock

This message is emitted once per second to watchers of a device emitting PPS, and is intended to report the drift between the start of the GPS second and seconds as reported by the system clock (which may be NTP-corrected).

The message contains second/microsecond pairs for two clocks; the realtime clock without NTP correction (the result of clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME), but only to microsecond precision) and the ordinary system clock (which may be NTP corrected).

There are various sources of error in the reported clock times. For PPS delivered via a real serial-line strobe, serial-interrupt latency plus processing time to the timer call should be bounded above by about 10 microseconds; USB-to-serial control-line emulation is known to add jitter of about 50 microseconds. (Both figures are for GPSD running in non-realtime mode on an x86 with a gigahertz clock and are estimates based on measured latency in other applications)

Here's an example:

{"class":"PPS","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
     "real_sec":1330212592, "real_nsec":343182,
     "clock_sec":1330212592,"clock_nsec":343184}
?DEVICE

This command reports (when followed by ';') the state of a device, or sets (when followed by '=' and a DEVICE object) device-specific control bits, notably the device's speed and serial mode and the native-mode bit. The parameter-setting form will be rejected if more than one client is attached to the channel.

Pay attention to the response, because it is possible for this command to fail if the GPS does not support a speed-switching command or only supports some combinations of serial modes. In case of failure, the daemon and GPS will continue to communicate at the old speed.

Use the parameter-setting form with caution. On USB and Bluetooth GPSes it is also possible for serial mode setting to fail either because the serial adaptor chip does not support non-8N1 modes or because the device firmware does not properly synchronize the serial adaptor chip with the UART on the GPS chipset when the speed changes. These failures can hang your device, possibly requiring a GPS power cycle or (in extreme cases) physically disconnecting the NVRAM backup battery.

A DEVICE object has the following elements:

Table 12. CONFIGCHAN object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "DEVICE"
pathNostringName the device for which the control bits are being reported, or for which they are to be applied. This attribute may be omitted only when there is exactly one subscribed channel.
activatedNostringTime the device was activated as an ISO8601 timestamp. If the device is inactive this attribute is absent.
flagsNointegerBit vector of property flags. Currently defined flags are: describe packet types seen so far (GPS, RTCM2, RTCM3, AIS). Won't be reported if empty, e.g. before gpsd has seen identifiable packets from the device.
driverNostringGPSD's name for the device driver type. Won't be reported before gpsd has seen identifiable packets from the device.
subtypeWhen the daemon sees a delayed response to a probe for subtype or firmware-version information.stringWhatever version information the device returned.
bpsNointegerDevice speed in bits per second.
parityYesstring

N, O or E for no parity, odd, or even.

stopbitsYesstring

Stop bits (1 or 2).

nativeNointeger0 means NMEA mode and 1 means alternate mode (binary if it has one, for SiRF and Evermore chipsets in particular). Attempting to set this mode on a non-GPS device will yield an error.
cycleNorealDevice cycle time in seconds.
mincycleNorealDevice minimum cycle time in seconds. Reported from ?CONFIGDEV when (and only when) the rate is switchable. It is read-only and not settable.

The serial parameters will be omitted in a response describing a TCP/IP source such as an Ntrip, DGPSIP, or AIS feed.

The contents of the flags field should be interpreted as follows:

Table 13. Device flags

C #defineValueDescription
SEEN_GPS0x01GPS data has been seen on this device
SEEN_RTCM20x02RTCM2 data has been seen on this device
SEEN_RTCM30x04RTCM3 data has been seen on this device
SEEN_AIS0x08AIS data has been seen on this device

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the DEVICE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class":"DEVICE","bps":4800,"parity":"N","stopbits":1,"native":0}

When a client is in watcher mode, the daemon will ship it DEVICE notifications when a device is added to the pool or deactivated.

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the DEVICE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

Here's an example:

{"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts1","activated":0}

The daemon may ship an error object in response to a syntactically invalid command line or unknown command. It has the following elements:

Table 14. ERROR notification object

NameAlways?TypeDescription
classYesstringFixed: "ERROR"
messageYesstringTextual error message

Here's an example:

{"class":"ERROR","message":"Unrecognized request '?FOO'"}

When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will assert the ERR_SET bit in the top-level set member.

RTCM2

RTCM-104 is a family of serial protocols used for broadcasting pseudorange corrections from differential-GPS reference stations. Many GPS receivers can accept these corrections to improve their reporting accuracy.

RTCM-104 comes in two major and incompatible flavors, 2.x and 3.x. Each major flavor has minor (compatible) revisions.

The applicable standard for RTCM Version 2.x is RTCM Recommended Standards for Differential NAVSTAR GPS Service RTCM Paper 194-93/SC 104-STD. For RTCM 3.1 it is RTCM Paper 177-2006-SC104-STD. Ordering instructions for both standards are accessible from the website of the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services under "Publications".

RTCM WIRE TRANSMISSIONS

Differential-GPS correction stations consist of a GPS reference receiver coupled to a low frequency (LF) transmitter. The GPS reference receiver is a survey-grade GPS that does GPS carrier tracking and can work out its own position to a few millimeters. It generates range and range-rate corrections and encodes them into RTCM104. It ships the RTCM104 to the LF transmitter over serial rs-232 signal at 100 baud or 200 baud depending on the requirements of the transmitter.

The LF transmitter broadcasts the approximately 300khz radio signal that differential-GPS radio receivers pick up. Transmitters that are meant to have a higher range will need to transmit at the slower rate. The higher the data rate the harder it will be for the remote radio receiver to receive with a good signal-to-noise ration. (Higher data rate signals can't be averaged over as long a time frame, hence they appear noisier.)

RTCM WIRE FORMATS

An RTCM 2.x message consists of a sequence of up to 33 30-bit words. The 24 most significant bits of each word are data and the six least significant bits are parity. The parity algorithm used is the same ISGPS-2000 as that used on GPS satellite downlinks. Each RTCM 2.x message consists of two header words followed by zero or more data words, depending upon message type.

An RTCM 3.x message begins with a fixed leader byte 0xD3. That is followed by six bits of version information and 10 bits of payload length information. Following that is the payload; following the payload is a 3-byte checksum of the payload using the Qualcomm CRC-24Q algorithm.

RTCM2 JSON FORMAT

Each RTCM2 message is dumped as a single JSON object per message, with the message fields as attributes of that object. Arrays of satellite, station, and constellation statistics become arrays of JSON sub-objects. Each sentence will normally also have a "device" field containing the pathname of the originating device.

All attributes other than the device field are mandatory. Header attributes are emitted before others.

Header portion

Table 15. SKY object

NameType

Description

classstring

Fixed: "RTCM2".

typeinteger

Message type (1-9).

station_idinteger

The id of the GPS reference receiver. The LF transmitters also have (different) id numbers.

zcountreal

The reference time of the corrections in the message in seconds within the current hour. Note that it is in GPS time, which is some seconds ahead of UTC (see the U.S. Naval Observatory's table of leap second corrections).

seqnuminteger

Sequence number. Only 3 bits wide, wraps after 7.

lengthinteger

The number of words after the header that comprise the message.

station_healthinteger

Station transmission status. Indicates the health of the beacon as a reference source. Any nonzero value means the satellite is probably transmitting bad data and should not be used in a fix. 6 means the transmission is unmonitored. 7 means the station is not working properly. Other values are defined by the beacon operator.


<message type> is one of

1

full corrections - one message containing corrections for all GPS satellites in view. This is not common.

3

reference station parameters - the position of the reference station GPS antenna.

4

datum — the datum to which the DGPS data is referred.

5

constellation health — information about the satellites the beacon can see.

6

null message — just a filler.

7

radio beacon almanac — information about this or other beacons.

9

subset corrections — a message containing corrections for only a subset of the GPS satellites in view.

16

special message — a text message from the beacon operator.

31

GLONASS subset corrections — a message containing corrections for a set of the GLONASS satellites in view.

Type 1 and 9: Correction data

One or more satellite objects follow the header for type 1 or type 9 messages. Here is the format:

Table 16. Satellite object

NameType

Description

identinteger

The PRN number of the satellite for which this is correction data.

udreinteger

User Differential Range Error (0-3). See the table following for values.

iodinteger

Issue Of Data, matching the IOD for the current ephemeris of this satellite, as transmitted by the satellite. The IOD is a unique tag that identifies the ephemeris; the GPS using the DGPS correction and the DGPS generating the data must use the same orbital positions for the satellite.

prcreal

The pseudorange error in meters for this satellite as measured by the beacon reference receiver at the epoch indicated by the z_count in the parent record.

rrcreal

The rate of change of pseudorange error in meters/sec for this satellite as measured by the beacon reference receiver at the epoch indicated by the z_count field in the parent record. This is used to calculate pseudorange errors at other epochs, if required by the GPS receiver.


User Differential Range Error values are as follows:

Table 17. UDRE values

01-sigma error <= 1m
11-sigma error <= 4m
21-sigma error <= 8m
31-sigma error > 8m

Here's an example:

{"class":"RTCM2","type":1,
    "station_id":688,"zcount":843.0,"seqnum":5,"length":19,"station_health":6,
    "satellites":[
	{"ident":10,"udre":0,"iod":46,"prc":-2.400,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":13,"udre":0,"iod":94,"prc":-4.420,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":7,"udre":0,"iod":22,"prc":-5.160,"rrc":0.002},
	{"ident":2,"udre":0,"iod":34,"prc":-6.480,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":4,"udre":0,"iod":47,"prc":-8.860,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":8,"udre":0,"iod":76,"prc":-7.980,"rrc":0.002},
	{"ident":5,"udre":0,"iod":99,"prc":-8.260,"rrc":0.002},
	{"ident":23,"udre":0,"iod":81,"prc":-8.060,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":16,"udre":0,"iod":70,"prc":-11.740,"rrc":0.000},
	{"ident":30,"udre":0,"iod":4,"prc":-18.960,"rrc":-0.006},
	{"ident":29,"udre":0,"iod":101,"prc":-24.960,"rrc":-0.002}
]}

Type 3: Reference Station Parameters

Here are the payload members of a type 3 (Reference Station Parameters) message:

Table 18. Reference Station Parameters

NameType

Description

xreal

ECEF X coordinate.

yreal

ECEF Y coordinate.

zreal

ECEF Z coordinate.


The coordinates are the position of the station, in meters to two decimal places, in Earth Centred Earth Fixed coordinates. These are usually referred to the WGS84 reference frame, but may be referred to NAD83 in the US (essentially identical to WGS84 for all except geodesists), or to some other reference frame in other parts of the world.

An invalid reference message is represented by a type 3 header without payload fields.

Here's an example:

{"class":"RTCM2","type":3,
    "station_id":652,"zcount":1657.2,"seqnum":2,"length":4,"station_health":6,
    "x":3878620.92,"y":670281.40,"z":5002093.59
}

Type 4: Datum

Here are the payload members of a type 4 (Datum) message:

Table 19. Datum

NameType

Description

dgnss_typestring

Either "GPS", "GLONASS", "GALILEO", or "UNKNOWN".

datinteger

0 or 1 and indicates the sense of the offset shift given by dx, dy, dz. dat = 0 means that the station coordinates (in the reference message) are referred to a local datum and that adding dx, dy, dz to that position will render it in GNSS coordinates (WGS84 for GPS). If dat = 1 then the ref station position is in GNSS coordinates and adding dx, dy, dz will give it referred to the local datum.

datum_namestring

A standard name for the datum.

dxreal

X offset.

dyreal

Y offset.

dzreal

Z offset.


<dx> <dy> <dz> are offsets to convert from local datum to GNSS datum or vice versa. These fields are optional.

An invalid datum message is represented by a type 4 header without payload fields.

Type 5: Constellation Health

One or more of these follow the header for type 5 messages — one for each satellite.

Here is the format:

Table 20. Constellation health

NameType

Description

identinteger

The PRN number of the satellite.

iodlbool

True indicates that this information relates to the satellite information in an accompanying type 1 or type 9 message.

healthinteger0 indicates that the satellite is healthy. Any other value indicates a problem (coding is not known).

snrinteger

The carrier/noise ratio of the received signal in the range 25 to 55 dB(Hz).

health_enbool

If set to True it indicates that the satellite is healthy even if the satellite navigation data says it is unhealthy.

new_databoolTrue indicates that the IOD for this satellite will soon be updated in type 1 or 9 messages.

los_warningbool

Line-of-sight warning. True indicates that the satellite will shortly go unhealthy.

touinteger

Healthy time remaining in seconds.


Type 6: Null

This just indicates a null message. There are no payload fields.

Unknown message

This format is used to dump message words in hexadecimal when the message type field doesn't match any of the known ones.

Here is the format:

Table 21. Unknown Message

NameType

Description

datalist

A list of strings.


Each string in the array is a hex literal representing 30 bits of information, after parity checks and inversion. The high two bits should be ignored.

Type 7: Radio Beacon Almanac

Here is the format:

Table 22. Contellation health

NameType

Description

latreal

Latitude in degrees, of the LF transmitter antenna for the station for which this is an almanac. North is positive.

lonreal

Longitude in degrees, of the LF transmitter antenna for the station for which this is an almanac. East is positive.

rangeintegerPublished range of the station in km.

frequencyreal

Station broadcast frequency in kHz.

healthinteger

<health> is the health of the station for which this is an almanac. If it is non-zero, the station is issuing suspect data and should not be used for fixes. The ITU and RTCM104 standards differ about the mode detailed interpretation of the <health> field and even about its bit width.

station_idinteger

The id of the transmitter. This is not the same as the reference id in the header, the latter being the id of the reference receiver.

bitrateinteger

The transmitted bitrate.


Here's an example:

{"class":"RTCM2","type":9,"station_id":268,"zcount":252.6,
        "seqnum":4,"length":5,"station_health":0,
        "satellites":[
            {"ident":13,"udre":0,"iod":3,"prc":-25.940,"rrc":0.066},
            {"ident":2,"udre":0,"iod":73,"prc":0.920,"rrc":-0.080},
            {"ident":8,"udre":0,"iod":22,"prc":23.820,"rrc":0.014}
]}

Type 13: GPS Time of Week

Here are the payload members of a type 13 (Groumf Tramitter Parameters) message:

Table 23. Grund Transmitter Parameters

NameType

Description

statusbool

If True, signals user to expect a type 16 explanatory message associated with this station. Probably indicates some sort of unusual event.

rangeflagbool

If True, indicates that the estimated range is different from that found in the Type 7 message (which contains the beacon's listed range). Generally indicates a range reduction due to causes such as poor ionospheric conditions or reduced transmission power.

latreal

Degrees latitude, signed. Positive is N, negative is S.

lonreal

Degrees longitude, signed. Positive is E, negative is W.

rangeinteger

Transmission range in km (1-1024).


This message type replaces message type 3 (Reference Station Parameters) in RTCM 2.3.

Type 14: GPS Time of Week

Here are the payload members of a type 14 (GPS Time of Week) message:

Table 24. Reference Station Parameters

NameType

Description

weekinteger

GPS week (0-123).

hourinteger

Hour of week (0-167).

leapsecsinteger

Leap Seconds (0-63).


Here's an example:

{"class":"RTCM2","type":14,"station_id":652,"zcount":1657.2,
        "seqnum":3,"length":1,"station_health":6,"week":601,"hour":109,
        "leapsecs":15}

Type 16: Special Message

Table 25. Special Message

NameType

Description

messagestring

A text message sent by the beacon operator.


Type 31: Correction data

One or more GLONASS satellite objects follow the header for type 1 or type 9 messages. Here is the format:

Table 26. Satellite object

NameType

Description

identinteger

The PRN number of the satellite for which this is correction data.

udreinteger

User Differential Range Error (0-3). See the table following for values.

changeboolean

Change-of-ephemeris bit.

toduinteger

Count of 30-second periods since the top of the hour.

prcreal

The pseudorange error in meters for this satellite as measured by the beacon reference receiver at the epoch indicated by the z_count in the parent record.

rrcreal

The rate of change of pseudorange error in meters/sec for this satellite as measured by the beacon reference receiver at the epoch indicated by the z_count field in the parent record. This is used to calculate pseudorange errors at other epochs, if required by the GPS receiver.


Here's an example:

{"class":"RTCM2","type":31,"station_id":652,"zcount":1642.2,
    "seqnum":0,"length":14,"station_health":6,
    "satellites":[
        {"ident":5,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":132.360,"rrc":0.000},
        {"ident":15,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":134.840,"rrc":0.002},
        {"ident":14,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":141.520,"rrc":0.000},
        {"ident":6,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":127.000,"rrc":0.000},
        {"ident":21,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":128.780,"rrc":0.000},
        {"ident":22,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":125.260,"rrc":0.002},
        {"ident":20,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":0,"prc":117.280,"rrc":-0.004},
        {"ident":16,"udre":0,"change":false,"tod":17,"prc":113.460,"rrc":0.018}
]}

RTCM3 DUMP FORMAT

The support for RTCM104v3 dumping is incomplete and buggy. Do not attempt to use it for production! Anyone interested in it should read the source code.

AIS DUMP FORMATS

AIS support is an extension. It may not be present if your instance of gpsd has been built with a restricted feature set.

AIS packets are dumped as JSON objects with class "AIS". Each AIS report object contains a "type" field giving the AIS message type and a "scaled" field telling whether the remainder of the fields are dumped in scaled or unscaled form. (These will be emitted before any type-specific fields.) It will also contain a "device" field naming the data source. Other fields have names and types as specified in the AIVDM/AIVDO Protocol Decoding document on the GPSD project website; each message field table may be directly interpreted as a specification for the members of the corresponding JSON object type.

By default, certain scaling and conversion operations are performed for JSON output. Latitudes and longitudes are scaled to decimal degrees rather than the native AIS unit of 1/10000th of a minute of arc. Ship (but not air) speeds are scaled to knots rather than tenth-of-knot units. Rate of turn may appear as "nan" if is unavailable, or as one of the strings "fastright" or "fastleft" if it is out of the AIS encoding range; otherwise it is quadratically mapped back to the turn sensor number in degrees per minute. Vessel draughts are converted to decimal meters rather than native AIS decimeters. Various other scaling conversions are described in "AIVDM/AIVDO Protocol Decoding".

SUBFRAME DUMP FORMATS

Subframe support is always compiled into gpsd but many GPSes do not output subframe data or the gpsd driver may not support subframes.

Subframe packets are dumped as JSON objects with class "SUBFRAME". Each subframe report object contains a "frame" field giving the subframe number, a "tSV" field for the transmitting satellite number, a "TOW17" field containing the 17 MSBs of the start of the next 12-second message and a "scaled" field telling whether the remainder of the fields are dumped in scaled or unscaled form. It will also contain a "device" field naming the data source. Each SUBFRAME object will have a sub-object specific to that subframe page type. Those sub-object fields have names and types similar to those specified in the IS-GPS-200E document; each message field table may be directly interpreted as a specification for the members of the corresponding JSON object type.

SEE ALSO

gpsd(8), libgps(3),

AUTHOR

The protocol was designed and documented by Eric S. Raymond.